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Winemaking, or vinification, is the process of wine production, from the selection of grapes to the bottling of finished wine. Wine production can be generally classified into two categories: Still wine production and sparkling wine production.

After the harvest, the grapes are crushed and allowed to ferment. Red wine is made from the must (pulp) of red or black grapes that undergo fermentation together with the grape skins, while white wine is usually made by fermenting juice pressed from white grapes, but can also be made from must extracted from red grapes with minimal contact with the grapes' skins. Rosé wines are made from red grapes where the juice is allowed to stay in contact with the dark skins long enough to pick up a pinkish color, but little of the tannins contained in the skins.

During this primary fermentation, which often takes between one and two weeks, yeast converts most of the sugars in the grape juice into ethanol (alcohol). After the primary fermentation, the liquid is transferred to vessels for the secondary fermentation. Here, the remaining sugars are slowly converted into alcohol and the wine becomes clear. Some wine is then allowed to age in oak barrels before bottling, which add extra aromas to the wine, while others are bottled directly. The time from harvest to drinking can vary from a few months for Beaujolais nouveau wines to over twenty years for top wines. However, only about 10% of all red and 5% of white wine will taste better after 5 years, compared to after one year.[1] Depending on the quality of grapes and the target wine style, some of these steps may be combined or omitted to achieve the particular goals of the winemaker. Many wines of comparable quality are produced using similar but distinctly different approaches to their production; quality is dictated by the attributes of the starting material and not necessarily the steps taken during vinification.

Variations on the above procedure exist. With sparkling wines such as Champagne, an additional fermentation takes place inside the bottle, trapping carbon dioxide and creating the characteristic bubbles. Sweet wines are made by ensuring that some residual sugar remains after fermentation is completed. This can be done by harvesting late (late harvest wine), freezing the grapes to concentrate the sugar (ice wine), or adding a substance to kill the remaining yeast before fermentation is completed; for example, high proof brandy is added when making port wine. In other cases the winemaker may choose to hold back some of the sweet grape juice and add it to the wine after the fermentation is done, a technique known as süssreserve.


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Kate's Vineyard
5211 Big Ranch Rd, Napa, CA 94558-1004 707 255-2644
Las Cerezas Wine Corporation
3031 California Blvd, Napa, CA 94558-3304 707 963-9597
Mahoney Family Estates
1285 Dealy Ln, Napa, CA 94559-9706 707 253-9461
Mayacamas Vineyards & Winery
1155 Lokoya Rd, Napa, CA 94558-9566 707
Mendelson Vineyards
1226 3rd St, Napa, Ca 94559 707 255-7825
Michael-Scott Wines, LTD
2993 Brook wood DR, Napa, CA 94558 707 226-1622 email
Moffett Vineyard
3703 Argyle, Napa, CA 94558 707 265-7775
Monticello Cellars
4242 Big Ranch Rd, Napa, CA 94558-1396

253-2802 email (800) 743-6668
Hours Daily 10:00 Am - 4:30 PM
Mont St John
5400 Old Sonoma Rd, Napa, CA 94559
707 255-8864  email
Moss Creek Winery
6015 Steele Canyon Rd, Napa, CA 94558-9634
707 252-1295
Mt Veeder Winery & Vineyards
1999 Mount Veeder Rd, Napa, CA 94558-9773
707 224-4039
Newlan Vineyards & Winery
5225 Solano Ave, Napa, CA 94558-1019 707 257-2399
Oakville Ranch Winery
7850 Silverado Trl, Napa, CA 94558-9432 707 944-9500
Pahlmeyer Winery
P.O. Box 2410 , Napa, CA 94558  707 255-2321 email
Parducci Wine Estates
1775 Lincoln Ave, Napa, CA 94558-4706 707 224-6565
Phoenix Vineyards
3175 Dry Creek Rd, Napa, CA 94558-9722 707 252-8381
Pina Cellars
8060 Silverado Trl, Napa, CA 94558-9434 707  944-2229
Pine Ridge Winery
5901 Silverado Trl, Napa, CA 94558 707 252-9777
Hours Daily 10:30am - 4:30pm
Poppy Hill Cellars
5400 Old Sonoma Rd, Napa, CA 94559-9708 707 257-2775
Quixote Winery
6126 Silverado Trail, Napa, CA 94558  707-944-2659
Robert Craig & Association
830 School St # 14, Napa, CA 94559-2854 707 252-2250

Hours Wed-Sat 10:30 Am - 4:30 PM
Rocking Horse Winery Incorporated
PO Box 4568, Napa, CA 94559 707 226-5555
Shafer Vineyards
6154 Silverado Trl, Napa, CA 94558-9748 707 944-2877
Signorello Vineyards
4500 Silverado Trl, Napa, CA 94558-1100 707 255-5990 
Hours Daily 10:00 Am - 5:00 PM
Silverado Hill Cellars
3103 Silverado Trl, Napa, CA 94558-1412 707 253-9306
Hours Wed-Sun  11:00 Am - 5:30 PM
Stag's Leap Wine Cellars
5766 Silverado Trl, Napa, CA 94558-9413 707 944-2020
Stag's Leap Winery
6150 Silverado Trl, Napa, CA 94558-9748
800-640-LEAP email Fax: (707) 944-9433
Hours Daily 10:00 Am - 4:30 PM
Steltzner Vineyards
5998 Silverado Trl, Napa, CA 94558-9416 707 252-7272  email
Hours M-S 10:00 Am - 5:00 PM Sun 12-5
Tavo Thrace
1300 Loma Vista Dr., Napa, CA 94558-9444 707 257-6796 
Truchard Vineyard
3234 Old Sonoma Rd, Napa, CA 94559-9701 707 253-7153
Tulocay Winery
1426 Coombsville Rd, Napa, CA 94558-3907 707 255-4064 email
Vine Cliff Winery
7400 Silverado Trl, Napa, CA 94558-9425 707 944-1364
William Hill Winery
1761 Atlas Peak Rd
Napa, CA 94558-1251 707
224-4477 email
Hours Daily 10:00 Am - 4:30 PM
Winter Creek Winery
PO Box 2847, Napa, CA 94558-0284 707 252-8677
Z D Wines
8383 Silverado Trl, Napa, CA 94558-9436 707 963-5188 email
Hours Daily 10:00 Am - 4:30 PM
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