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Napa Valley,Sonoma, San Francisco North Bay, Ca. , California, USA, Angwin, St Helena, Calistoga, Yountville, Napa, Sonoma, Oakville, Rutherford, California, County Vineyards St Helena California
Napa Valley, San Francisco North Bay, Ca. USA

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Most white wines are processed without destemming or crushing and are transferred from picking bins directly to the press. This is to avoid any extraction of tannin from either the skins or grapeseeds, as well as maintaining proper juice flow through a matrix of grape clusters rather than loose berries. In some circumstances winemakers choose to crush white grapes for a short period of skin contact, usually for three to 24 hours. This serves to extract flavor and tannin from the skins (the tannin being extracted to encourage protein precipitation without excessive Bentonite addition) as well as Potassium ions, which participate in bitartrate precipitation (cream of tartar) to increase the pH of the juice. This was a practice more common in the 1970's than today, though still practiced by some Sauvignon blanc and Chardonnay producers in California.

In the case of rosé wines, the dark skins are left in contact with the juice just long enough to extract the color that the winemaker desires. The must is then pressed, and fermentation continues as if the wine maker was making a white wine.

Yeast is normally already present on the grapes, often visible as a powdery appearance of the grapes. The fermentation can be done with this natural yeast, but since this can give unpredictable results depending on the exact types of yeast that are present, cultured yeast is often added to the must.

During the primary fermentation, the yeast cells feed on the sugars in the must and multiply, producing carbon dioxide gas and alcohol. The temperature during the fermentation affects both the taste of the end product, as well as the speed of the fermentation. For red wines, the temperature is typically 22 to 25 °C, and for white wines 15 to 18 °C. For every gram of sugar that is converted, about half a gram of alcohol is produced, so to achieve a 12% alcohol concentration, the must should contain about 24% sugars. The sugar percentage of the must is calculated from the measured density, the must weight, with the help of a saccharometer. If the sugar content of the grapes is too low to obtain the desired alcohol percentage, sugar can be added (chaptalization). In commercial winemaking, chaptalization is subject to local regulations.

During or after the alcoholic fermentation, malolactic fermentation can also take place, during which specific strains of bacteria convert malic acid into the milder lactic acid. This fermentation is often initiated by inoculation with desired bacteria.









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Alphabetical Listings

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Ag-Tech Services Inc
395 Crane Av, St Helena, CA 94574 707
Barbour Vineyards
975 Vintage Ave # D   
St Helena Ca 94574  707
Beard Ranches Inc   
1361 Main St, St Helena Ca 94574
707 963-5545
Edgar Beard
Beckstoffer Vineyards   
1127 Pope St,  St Helena Ca 94574
707 963-9471
W Andrew Beckstoffer
Brown Estate Vineyards
3233 Sage Canyon Rd, St Helena, CA
707 963-0179
Carpy Conolly Ranch   
Po Box 410, St Helena Ca 94574
707 963-6176        
Chiles Valley Vineyard   
2680 Lower Chiles Valley Rd, St Helena Ca 94574
 707 963-7294
Oscar Renteria
Clark Vineyard Management Co 
Po Box 325,  St Helena Ca 94574
 707 963-8690   
Corbett Vineyards
2959 White Sulphur Springs Rd, St Helena Ca 94574
707 963-1900
Connie Corbett   
Entre Nous Vineyards   
1677 Sage Canyon Rd, St Helena Ca 94574   707 963-1595       
Gantner Vineyards   
3549 Langtry Rd, St Helena Ca 4574 707 963-9001       
Harrison Vineyards   
1527 Sage Canyon Rd,  St Helena Ca 94574
 707 963-8271
Lyndsey Harrison
Hogue Vineyard  
Po Box 511, St Helena Ca 94574 
 707 963-1707                      
Wayne Hogue   
Long Vineyard   
1535 Sage Canyon Rd, St Helena Ca 94574  707  963-2496
Robert Long   
Mitchell Vineyard Management 
1831 Howell Mountain Rd, St Helena Ca 94574 
 707 963-7050       
Sage Canyon Ranch   
2470 Sage Canyon Rd, St Helena Ca 94574 
 707 963-2076       
Stony Hill Vineyard   
3331 Saint Helena Hwy N, St Helena Ca 94574 
 707 963-2636
Peter Mc Crea   
Usibelli Grape Ranch   
8951 Conn Creek Rd, St Helena Ca 94574
 707 963-9142
Carlos Renteria   
Vista Vineyard Management   
Po Box 122, St Helena Ca 94574
 707 963-3330       
Worldwide Vineyards Consltnts
Po Box 714, St Helena Ca 94574   
 707 963-2848                        
Pierre Bilebent   
York Creek Vineyards Foreman 
3601 Langtry Rd, St Helena Ca 94574
707 963-7099                        
Ed Ewing       
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City of St Helena Index







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